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WHAT CONGRESS AND GANDHI HAVE DONE TO THE UNTOUCHABLES - 4 -Chapter 3 Summary "A MEAN DEAL" Part-1 "Congress Refuses To Part With Power" by DR. BR Ambedkar

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WHAT CONGRESS AND GANDHI HAVE DONE TO THE UNTOUCHABLES - 4 -Chapter 3 Summary "A MEAN DEAL" Part-1 "Congress Refuses To Part With Power" by DR. BR Ambedkar

Post  Admin on Sun Mar 20, 2011 8:50 pm

WHAT CONGRESS AND GANDHI HAVE DONE TO THE UNTOUCHABLES - by Dr. B R Ambedkar - Part 4

Chapter 3 Summary (Chapter 2 - http://mooknaayak.freeblogforum.com/t24-what-congress-and-gandhi-have-done-to-the-untouchables-2-chapter-2-summary-a-shabby-show-part-1-congress-abandons-its-plan-by-dr-br-ambedkar#29 )

A MEAN DEAL

Part-1

Congress Refuses To Part With Power


IN the Government of India Act of 1919, there was a provision which had imposed an obligation on, His Majesty's Government to appoint at the end of ten years a Royal Commission to investigate into the working of the Constitution and report upon, such changes as may be found necessary.

On the 12th November 1930, His late Majesty King George V formally inaugurated the Indian Round Table Conference.

For the Untouchables it was a landmark in their history. For, the Untouchables were for the first time allowed to be represented separately by two delegates who happened to be myself and Dewan Bahadur R. Srinivasan. This meant that the Untouchables were regarded not merely a separate element from the Hindus but: also of such importance as to have the right to be consulted in, the framing of a constitution for India.

The first thing that was required to be done was to formulate the safeguards deemed necessary by the Untouchables for their protection against the tyranny and oppression of the Hindus. This I did by submitting a Memorandum to the Minorities Committee of the Round Table Conference.

A Scheme of Political Safeguards for the Protection of the Depressed Classes in the Future Constitution of a self-governing India, submitted to the Indian Round Table Conference.

The following are the terms and conditions on which the Depressed Classes will consent to place themselves under a majority rule in a self-governing India.

Condition No. I: EQUAL CITIZENSHIP

Condition No. II: FREE ENJOYMENT OF EQUAL RIGHTS

(A) The Depressed Classes therefore propose that the following section should be added, to Part XI of the Government of India Act 1919, dealing with Offers, Procedure and Penalties :—

(i) Offence of infringement of Citizenship.


(B) Obstruction by orthodox individuals is not the only menace to the Depressed Classes in the way of peaceful enjoyment of their rights. The commonest form of obstruction is the social boycott. It is the most formidable weapon in the hands of the orthodox classes with which they beat down any attempt on the part of the Depressed Classes to undertake any activity if it happens to be unpalatable to them.

Depressed Classes and Social Boycott

Although we have recommended various remedies to secure to the Depressed Classes their rights to all public utilities we fear that there will be difficulties in the way of their exercising them for a long time to come. The first difficulty is the fear of open violence against them by the orthodox classes. It must be noted that the Depressed Classes form a small minority in every village, opposed to which is a great majority of the orthodox who are bent on protecting their interests and dignity from any supposed invasion by the Depressed Classes at any cost. The danger of prosecution by the Police has put a limitation upon the use of violence by the orthodox classes and consequently such cases are rare.

"The second difficulty arises from the economic position in which the Depressed Classes are found to-day. The Depressed Classes have no economic independence in most parts of the Presidency. Some cultivate the lands of the orthodox classes as their tenants at will. Others live on their earnings as farm labourers employed by the orthodox classes and the rest subsist on the food or grain given to them by the orthodox classes in lieu of service rendered to them as village servants. We have heard of numerous instances where the orthodox classes have used their economic power as a weapon against those Depressed Classes in their villages, when the latter have dared to exercise their rights, and have evicted them from their land, and stopped their employment and discontinued their remuneration as village servants. This boycott is often planned on such an extensive scale as to include the prevention of the Depressed Classes from using the commonly used paths and the stoppage of sale of the necessaries of life by the village Bania. According to the evidence sometimes small causes suffice for the proclamation of a social boycott against the Depressed Classes. Frequently it follows on the exercise by the Depressed Classes of their right to the use of the common well, but cases have been by no means rare where a stringent boycott has been proclaimed simply because a Depressed Class man has put on the sacred thread, has bought a piece of land, has put on good clothes or ornaments, or has carried a marriage procession with the bridegroom on the horse through the public street.

1. OFFENCE OF BOYCOTT DEFINED

(i) A person shall be deemed to boycott another who—

II. PUNISHMENT FOR BOYCOTTING

.....shall be punished with imprisonment of either description which may extend to seven years or with fine or with both,

III. PUNISHMENT FOR INSTIGATING OR PROMOTING A BOYCOTT

.....shall be punished with imprisonment which may extend to five years, or with fine or with both.

IV. PUNISHMENT FOR THREATENING A BOYCOTT

shall be punished with imprisonment, of either description for a term which may extend to five years or with fine or with both.

Exception :—It is not boycott

(i) to do any act in furtherance of a bona fide labour dispute,

Condition No. III.

PROTECTION AGAINST DISCRIMINATION

(ii) to do any act in the ordinary course of business competition.

Condition No. IV

ADEQUATE REPRESENTATION IN THE LEGISLATURES

(1) Right to adequate representation in the Legislatures of the Country, Provincial and Central.

(2) Right to elect their own men as their representatives,

(a) by adult suffrage, and

(b) by separate electorates for the first ten years and thereafter by joint electorates and reserved seats, it being under-stood that joint electorates shall not be forced upon the Depressed Classes against their will unless such joint electorates are accompanied by adult suffrage.

N.B.—Adequate Representation for the Depressed Classes . cannot be defined in quantitative terms until the extent of representation allowed to other communities is known. But it must be understood that the Depressed Classes will not consent to the representation of any other community being settled on better terms than those allowed to them. They will not agree to being placed at a disadvantage in this matter. In any case the Depressed Classes of Bombay and Madras must have weightage over their population ratio of representation irrespective of the extent of representation allowed to other minorities in the Provinces.

Condition No. V

ADEQUATE REPRESENTATION IN THE SERVICES


Condition No. VI

REDRESS AGAINST PREJUDICIAL ACTION OR NEGLECT OF INTERESTS

In view of the fact that the Majority Rule of the future will be the rule of the orthodox, the Depressed Classes fear that such a Majority Rule will not be sympathetic to them and that the probability of prejudice to their interests and neglect of their vital needs cannot be overlooked. It must be provided against particularly because, however adequately represented the Depressed Classes will be in a minority in all legislatures. The Depressed Classes think it very necessary that they should have the means of redress given to them in the constitution. It is therefore proposed that the following provision should be made in the constitution of India :—

British North America Act, 1867,Sec.93

Condition No. VII

SPECIAL DEPARTMENTAL CARE

To secure this end the proposal of the Depressed Classes is that the Constitutional Law, should impose upon the Government of India a statutory obligation to maintain at all times a department to deal with their problems by the addition of a section in the Government of India Act to the following effect:—

"1. Simultaneously with the introduction of this Constitution and as part thereof, there shall be created in the Government of India a Department to be incharge of a Minister for the purpose of watching the interests of the Depressed Classes and promoting their welfare.

"2. The Minister shall hold office so long as he retains the confidence of the Central Legislature.

"3. It shall be the duty of the Minister in the exercise of any powers and duties conferred upon him or transferred to him by law, to take all such steps as may be desirable to secure the preparation, effective carrying out and co-ordination of measures preventative of acts of social injustice, tyranny or oppression against the Depressed Classes and conducive to their welfare through-out India.

"4. It shall be lawful for the Governor-General—

(a) to transfer to the Minister all or any powers or duties in respect of the welfare of the Depressed Classes arising from any enactment relating to education, sanitation, etc.

(b) to appoint Depressed Classes welfare bureaus in each province to work under the authority of and in co-operation with the Minister,

Condition No. VIII

DEPRESSED CLASSES AND THE CABINET

Just as it is necessary that the Depressed Classes should have the power to influence governmental action by seats in the Legislature so also it is desirable that the Depressed Classes should have the opportunity to frame the general policy of the Government. This they can do only if they can find a seat in the Cabinet. The Depressed Classes therefore claim that in common with other minorities, their moral rights to be represented in the Cabinet should be recognised. With this purpose in view the Depressed Classes propose :

that in the Instrument of Instructions an obligation shall be placed upon the Governor and the Governor-General to endeavour to secure the representation of the Depressed Classes in his Cabinet.

Part 2 ( http://mooknaayak.freeblogforum.com/t29-what-congress-and-gandhi-have-done-to-the-untouchables-5-chapter-3-summary-a-mean-deal-part-2-congress-refuses-to-part-with-power-by-dr-br-ambedkar#34 )

Note: Untouchables by constitution of India are called as Schedule Castes (SC) and Schedule Tribes(ST).

To read complete Chapter or book or more literature of DR. BR Ambedkar click http://drambedkarbooks.wordpress.com/dr-b-r-ambedkar-books/

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Editor: Nikhil Sablania



काँग्रेस और गाँधी ने अछूतों के लिए क्या किया? : लेखक: डा बी आर आंबेडकर : यह पुस्तक अवश्य पढने योग्य है. मात्र इस पुस्तक को पढने से न सिर्फ आप भारत की राजनीती को समझते हैं बल्कि यह पुस्तक आपके मस्तिक्षक को इतना विकसित कर देगी जिससे कि न सिर्फ आपको भारत में बदलती राजनीती को समझने में मदद मिलेगी बल्कि आप में यह सामर्थ्यता भी आएगी है कि आप खुद को देश कि राजनैतिक व्यवस्था में किस प्रकार दिशा देते हैं. बाबा साहेब जी द्वारा लिखी यह एक ऐतिहासिक और दुर्लभ राजनैतिक कृति है. - निखिल सबलाणिया

हिंदी में यह पुस्तक मंगवाने के लिए संपर्क करे :
निखिल सबलाणिया
Nikhil Sablania
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