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What is Not Dhamma - 4 Belief in Soul is Not Dhamma (From "Buddha And His Dhamma" by Dr. BR Ambedkar)

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What is Not Dhamma - 4 Belief in Soul is Not Dhamma (From "Buddha And His Dhamma" by Dr. BR Ambedkar)

Post  Admin on Wed May 11, 2011 8:50 pm

What is Not Dhamma - 4 Belief in Soul is Not Dhamma (From "Buddha And His Dhamma" by Dr. BR Ambedkar)



1. The Buddha said that religion based on soul is based on speculation.

2. Nobody has seen the soul or has conversed with the soul.

3. The soul is unknown and unseen.

4. The thing that exists is not the soul but the mind. Mind is different from the soul.

5. Belief in soul he said is unprofitable.

6. A religion based on soul is therefore not worth having.

7. It only ends in creating superstition.

8. The Buddha did not leave the question there. He discussed it in all its aspects.

9. Belief in the existence of soul is as common as the belief in the existence of God.

10. Belief in the existence of soul was also a part of the Brahmanic Religion.

11. In the Brahmanic Religion the soul is called Atma or Atman.

12. In the Brahmanic Religion, Atman is the name given to an entity which was held to be abiding separate from the body, but living inside the body constantly existing from the moment of his birth.

13. Belief in the soul included other beliefs, connected with it.

14. The soul does not die with the body. It takes birth in another body when it comes into being.

15. The body serves as an external clothing for the soul.

16. Did the Buddha believe in the soul? No. He did not. His doctrine about the soul is called Anatta, no soul.

17. Given a disembodied soul various questions arise : What is the soul ? Where did it come from ? What becomes of it on the death of the body ? Where does it go ? In what form does it exist " hereafter." How long does it remain there ? These questions the Buddha tried to argue out with the upholders of the doctrine of the soul.

18. He first tried to show how vague was the idea about the soul by his usual method of cross examination.

19. He asked those who believed in the existence of the soul, what the soul was like in size arid in shape.

20. To Ananda he said the declarations concerning the soul are abounding. Some declare: "My soul has a form and it is minute." Others declare the soul to have form and to be boundless and minute. Others declare it to be formless and boundless.

21. "In so many ways, Ananda, are declarations made concerning the soul."

22. "How is the soul conceived by those who believe in the soul?" was another question raised by the Buddha. Some say, "My soul is feeling." Others say, " Nay, my soul is not feeling, my soul is not sentient " ; or again : " Nay, my soul is not feeling, nor is it non-sentient ; my soul has feeling, it has the property of sentience." Under such aspects as these is the soul conceived.

23. The Buddha next asked those who believed in the existence of the soul as to the condition of the soul after the death of the body.

24. He also raised the question whether the soul was visible after the death of the body.

25. He found infinite number of vague statements.

26. Does the soul keep its form after the death of the body ? He found that there were eight different speculations.

27. Does the soul die with the body? There were innumerable speculations on this.

28. He also raised the question of the happiness or misery of the soul after the body is dead. Is the soul happy after the death of the body ? On this also the Recluses and Brahmins differed. Some said it was altogether miserable. Some said it was happy. Some said it is both happy and miserable and some said it is neither happy nor miserable.

29. His answer to all these theories about the existence of the soul was the same which he gave to Cunda.

30. To Cunda he said : " Now, Cunda, to those recluses and Brahmins, who believe and profess any one of these views, I go and say this : ' Is this so, friends ? ' And if they reply: ' Yes. This alone is true, any other view is absurd.' I do not admit their claim. Why is this? Because persons hold different opinions on such questions. Nor do I consider this (or that) view on a
level with my own, let alone higher."

31. Now the more important question is what were the arguments of the Buddha against the existence of the soul.

32. The general arguments he advanced in support of his denial of the soul were the same as those which he advanced in support of his denial of the existence of God.

33. He argued that the discussion of the existence of the soul is as unprofitable as the discussion of the existence of God.

34. He argued that the belief in the existence of the soul is as much against the cultivation of Samma Ditthi as the belief in the existence of God.

35. He argued that the belief in the existence of the soul is as much a source of superstition as the belief in God is. Indeed in his opinion the belief in the existence of a soul is far more dangerous than the belief in God. For not only does it create a priesthood, not only is it the origin of all superstition but it gives the priesthood complete control over man from birth to death.

36. Because of these general arguments it is said that the Buddha did not express any definite opinion on the existence of the soul. Others have said that he did not repudiate the theory of the existence of the soul. Others have said that he was always dodging the issue.

37. These statements are quite incorrect. For to Mahali he did tell in most positive terms that there is no such thing as a soul. That is why his theory of the soul is called Anatta, i.e'., non-soul.

38. Apart from the general arguments against the existence of the soul, the Buddha had a special argument against the existence of the soul which he regarded as fatal to the theory of the soul.

39. His theory against the existence of the soul as a separate entity is called Nama-Rupa.

40. The theory is the result of the application of the Vibhaja test, of sharp, rigorous analysis, of the constituent elements of Sentient being otherwise called Human Personality.

41. Nama-Rupa is a collective name for a Sentient Being.

42. According to the Buddha's analysis, a Sentient Being is a compound thing consisting of certain physical elements and certain mental elements. They are called Khandas.

43. The Rupa Khanda primarily consists of the physical elements such as earth, water, fire and air. They constitute the Body or Rupa.

44. Besides Rupa Khanda, there is such a thing as Nama Khanda which goes to make up a Sentient Being.

45. This Nama Khanda is called Vinana, or consciousness. This Nama Khanda includes the three mental elements : Vedana (sensation springing from contact of the six senses with the world), Sanna (perception); Sankhara (states of mind). Chetana (consciousness) is sometimes spoken of along with the three other mental states as being one of them. A modern psychologist would say that consciousness is the mainspring from which other psychological phenomena arise. Vinana is the centre of a sentient being.

46. Consciousness is result of the combination of the four elements, Prithi, Apa, Tej and Vayu.

47. An objection is raised to this theory of consciousness propounded by the Buddha.

48. Those who object to this theory ask, " How is, consciousness produced ? "

49. It is true. that consciousness arises with birth and dies with death. All the same, can it be said that consciousness is the result of the combination of the four elements ?

50. The Buddha's answer was not that the co-existence or aggregation of the physical elements produces consciousness. What the Buddha said was that wherever there was rupa or kaya there was consciousness accompanying it.

51. To give an analogy from science, there is an electric field and wherever there is an electric field it is always accompanied by a magnetic field. No one knows how the magnetic field is created or how it arises. But it always exists along with the electric field.

52. Why should not the same relationship be said to exist between body and consciousness?

53. The magnetic field in relation to the electric field is called an induced field. Why cannot consciousness be called an induced field in relation to Rupa-Kaya.

54.' The Buddha's argument against the soul is not yet complete. He had further to say something of importance.

55. Once consciousness arises man becomes a sentient being. Consciousness is, therefore, the chief thing in man's life.

56. Consciousness is cognitive, emotional and volitional.

57. Consciousness is cognitive when it gives knowledge, information, as appreciating or apprehending, whether it be appreciation of internal facts or of external things and events.

58. Consciousness is emotional when it exists in certain subjective states, characterised by either pleasurable or painful tones, when emotional consciousness produces feeling.

59. Consciousness in its volitional stage makes a being exert himself for the attainment of some end. Volitional consciousness gives rise to what we call will or activity.

60. It is thus clear that all the functions of a sentient being are performed by the sentient being through and as a result of consciousness.

61. After this analysis the Buddha asked what in are the functions which are left to be performed by the soul? All functions assigned to the soul are performed by consciousness.

62. A soul without any function is an absurdity.

63. This is how the Buddha disproved the existence of the soul.

64. That is why. the existence of the soul cannot be a part of Dhamma.


What is Not Dhamma - 5 Belief in Sacrifices is Not—Dhamma

http://mooknaayak.freeblogforum.com/t62-what-is-not-dhamma-5-belief-in-sacrifices-is-notdhamma-from-buddha-and-his-dhamma-by-dr-br-ambedkar#75

What is Not Dhamma - 3 Dhamma Based on Union with Brahma is a False Dhamma

http://mooknaayak.freeblogforum.com/t58-what-is-not-dhamma-3-dhamma-based-on-union-with-brahma-is-a-false-dhamma-from-buddha-and-his-dhamma-by-dr-br-ambedkar

To read complete book or more literature of DR. BR Ambedkar click http://drambedkarbooks.wordpress.com/dr-b-r-ambedkar-books/

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